There’s a new batch of chicks hatched last 2 weeks, and I’m going to build a chicken brooder for them. It’s basically a smaller coop which used to grow chicks until they reach around 2 months old before being released into the bigger coop and get mixed with existing chicken.
I build it using left over materials from various sources. I recycled the pallet wood from the electric grid construction in the village, garden mesh from the extra I have after covering the house gate, and the netting is the one I created last time in Penang to use to cover the apartment window, but never finished it.
To install the brooder watering cups with the existing waterer, I use a hose splitter to split the water flow. I also moved the watering cups inside the coop to be near the door, to ease the clean up process – every week these cups need to be cleaned because it got some dirts in it.
Grazing box is just a box filled with grass but covered with wire mesh to prevent chicken from scratching the grass, which purpose is to provide leafy greens food for the chicken.
There are a few factors that attract me into aquaponics, and I like it mostly because of the fact that I can harvest both fishes and vegetables from a single system. When doing conventional farming, I can only do planting, and it requires back-breaking work, from creating the patches, transplanting, fertilizing, weed control, pest control until harvesting. There are a lot of energy and time to put into it, but not enough outcome to be sold commercially.
So for this aquaponics set, I’ve been learning about it for a few months from The School of Aquaponics Youtube channel. In this channel, the instructor focuses a lot on UVI method, where I can summarize it as, to focus on feed to grow area ratio: amount of feed to be given to the fish is 3% of total fish body weight when they are fingerling, up to 60-100g per day per square meter (g/day/m2) of grow area when the fishes are grown up, with optimum fish stocking density of 60 kg per cubic meter of water (kg/m3).
There are a few other types of grow area, such as NFT (nutrient film technique) and media-filled grow bed, but I choose DWC (deep water culture) since it is the easiest to use and results in high yield. This DWC will be 1 feet deep, covered with netting to prevent pest and to reduce pesticide usage, and also for shade from excess sunlight. There are 3 DWC, each has size of 4 ft by 12 ft, and total of 144 ft2 or 13.5 m2. Each DWC will have 2 small air stone to increase dissolved oxygen in the water.
Fish tank that I’ll be using is a 1000 liter PVC tank, with maximum of 200 fishes, and feed rate of 900 g/day (for tilapia). To accomodate this high stocking density, I’ll have two medium size air stone inside it to supply dissolved oxygen. Pressurized water from pump inside the sump tank will be used to create circular flow inside the tank, where solid waste will gather in the middle, and I’ll use solid-lifting-overflow method to suck the waste out of the tank, into the solid filter.
For the solid filter, I’ll use a radial flow filter method, where water will flow upward then directed downward by some barrier which will settle the solid waste at the bottom of the bucket. I’ll add a drainage outlet to clean out the filter, and this waste later will be collected into mineralization tank. Water overflow from the solid filter go to bio filter tank.
This bio filter will serve multiple purpose. Primarily is for bio filtering activity, where bacteria will convert ammonia in the water into nitrate. Another is to further collect fine solid which couldn’t be filtered by solid filter. And lastly as a degassing component, which is to remove excess nitrogen, carbon dioxide or other harmful gas in the water. All these can be achieved by using trickle filter method.
Sump tank is the central, and the lowest point (in term of altitude) in the system, where all the water will be collected and distributed back. Here is where the 2000 liter per hour (L/h) water pump will be located. It also has overflow outlet, because the DWC will be exposed to rain and this allow the excess water to go outside.
Based on the diagram, the pressurized water line will be using ½ inch PVC pipe and gravity-fed water line will be using 2 inch UPVC pipe. I put a split flow from sump tank to fish tank and DWC units, and each inlet has valve for better water flow control and maintenance.
Mineralization tank is the only component that is separated from the system. Here, solid waste from solid filter will be collected here at least once a week, then it will be aerated to release the micronutrients, and then will be put back into the sump tank after 1 or 2 weeks.
For the styrofoam board design, I choose this design because it provides more holes than the simple rectangular design. I’ll have 6 of these styrofoam boards per DWC, so a total maximum of 648 plants can be planted and harvested at a time from this system – way more than what I can achieve when doing soil-based growing.
Regarding the growing schedule, when using soil, I could harvest the veggies after 8 weeks from germination, so by using aquaponics, hopefully I can half the duration, to 4 or 5 weeks. For germination, I plan to sow the seeds using wet tissues inside germination tray for 2 weeks, then transplant them to the DWC and by using sponge to hold it in the board holes – no net pot is used (to save cost).
There are a lot of rooms for improvement to be done, and I’m thinking about automation and operating it off-grid. Later on I plan to get automatic fish feeder, or maybe look into software-based solution using microcontroller such as Arduino or Raspberry Pi to automate the fish feeding process, measure water quality, and also to automate draining solid waste from filter into mineralization tank, and put it back into sump tank. In the future, I’m looking into setting up solar panel and backup battery to power the pumps and also the automation machines used later.
It’s been a week after all the chicks had been moved into this new coop and being fed manually. Today I’m going to install the automatic waterer and feeder. We already have water tank for harvesting rain, and I’m going to connect it to the waterer, and have one end to a valve, for our own usage.
With the waterer and feed system are installed, now the building process is done. Now I’m left with how to handle sick chicken. Currently I’m left with 16 chicks, and I found out at least 4 of them are sick. Based on traditional method, people used to keep tortoise inside chicken coop, and the water where the tortoise lives will become the cure for any chicken disease when they drink it. For commercial scale, I don’t think that’s feasible, as I need to take care of the tortoises and also their feed. Therefore I’ll try to look for some kind of chicken medicine or vaccine.
For this round, I plan to raise these chicken to become the parent. Maybe one rooster and 5 hens, only then I’ll start to sell them in bulk. It is estimated that these chicken will become adult in May, and able to produce offsprings by July or August. Therefore, I estimate around September, these ayam kampung will be ready to be sold.
A week after Chinese New Year holiday, continuing building the chicken coop. My plan was first, to install the wire mesh fence, then nail the woods to the pillar at ground level, part of the wood will be buried underground. This is to prevent chicken from scratching the soil and creating an escape hole.
Then we went to Sebuyau, and I bought another 4 meters at RM5.50/meter, to complete the perimeter and for the door.
During Chinese New Year holiday last month, I started building chicken coop for my ayam kampung (indigenous-breed chicken) project. My parent in laws were very kind to allow their old wooden house to be repurposed as chicken coop. Instead of building from scratch, I could reuse the pillar and roof of the house, and just build the fence and door to enter the coop.
I’ve planted around 10 trees of chilli of various types at home for personal consumption, and for this bulk planting, it was intended for sale. In September last year, I bought some cili geronong (habanero pepper) and cili besar (chilli pepper) from Medan Niaga Satok, and took out the seeds.
I sowed 60 cili geronong and 90 cili besar, and 10 cili padi (bird eye chilli) a week later, with total of 160 trees of chilli in 6 germination trays. I estimated around 70 – 80 percent of them will grow up to be able to be transplanted to our vacant land beside the plantation road in Kampung Segali.
Two weeks after those chilli seedlings grew, I gave them NPK fertilizer (pink color), one small piece for each of tray hole. They grew well, except that they grew slanted towards sunlight, which caused me to move them outside of the car porch. I still kept the netting cover to prevent strong sunlight and heavy rain from damaging the plants.
During last year Christmas, we went to check the chilli trees, and we were quite surprised to see the cili besar already bear some fruits. It took only 3 months for chilli to start producing results.
In the middle of February (last month), there were heavy rain for about a week that caused flood in our area. These chilli plants were also affected, some of them that didn’t grow tall enough were submerged. To make matter worse, the flood water was mixed with some diesel leaked from nearby lorry, and might affect the plants root.
I started actively planting crops last year after moving to our rented house, which is a corner lot unit and has a large backyard. My wife planted a few sawi pahit (mustard) at the side of the house, and it grew so well that we wanted to plant more types of crops.
I decided to focus on leafy greens while my wife tried a few other crops like corn, terung asam (sour eggplant), kailan, and recently focused to plant various herbs and veggies using pots instead of on direct soil, such as chives, coriander, mint, brazillian spinach and lowland strawberries.
The backyard area is larger than its side, so it took a few months of intermittent work to dig the ground, remove a large amount of bricks buried underneath it (I guess the leftover from the house construction), remove the weeds, and create the vegetable patch. There I planted spinach, kangkung (water convolvulus), pak choy and choy sum.
Pak choy and choy sum don’t grow well, they usually have small size, and it’s because of the soil which is too hard and compact, should have mixed it with compost and sand to repair the soil structure to allow it to be more aerated.
In September 2017, I focused to plant spinach only, directly on 8 patches. Before this I germinate the plants on sowing tray before transplanting them to soil. Besides sawi pahit, spinach is one of the veggies that I can sell, because of it’s high volume of good harvest.
We harvest them by picking the large leaves and let the small ones to grow more, therefore we can harvest multiple times without needing to sow the new ones.
At first it seems like good idea, but after 2 months and 3 harvests, pests such as caterpillar, beetles, ants, grasshoppers & butterfly larva destroyed them. The veggies make the ground condition become so conducive for the creatures to live. At that time I tried to avoid any pesticide as I try to produce organic veggies, but it didn’t work, I still need to do some form of pest control.
Last year, apart from doing iOS programming (Swift) for my day job, I also got involved in agriculture. I’ve been actively doing conventional farming for almost a year now – planting mostly leafy vegetables and chillies using soil mixed with compost and chicken manure as fertilizer.
I also got to plant some fruit trees from seed – few types of citrus like lemon & lime, salak (snake fruit), nangka (jackfruit), guava and cempedak.
Since I rarely update this blog with programming stuff anymore, I thought it would be better to post about my other passion which is agriculture.
So this year, I’m planning to move further into this field, and get into commercial agriculture. I’m planning to do two side projects related to agriculture for this year – ayam kampung (free-range chicken breeding) and aquaponics (for leafy vegetables & fresh water fish)
For ayam kampung, this month I’m going to start building the coop, and try to use some techniques found online to auto feed and auto water them. Specifically for feeding, I want to build a DIY feeder which use bucket and UPVC pipe as hole for the chicken to peck the feed, and for the waterer, I’m going to use PVC tank to harvest rain and connect it to poultry watering cups inside the coop.
For aquaponics, I’ll start getting the components and build the grow bed next month. This aquaponics set is meant to grow leafy vegetables like few types of sawi (mustard) like pak choy, choy sum & kai lan, spinach and lettuce. For the fish part, I plan to grow tilapia and some types of catfish (baung, keli or haruan).
If everything is going according to plan, I’m expecting to start selling my produce in May 2018. I’m living in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia by the way, and I’ll start selling them at my in-laws village at Kampung Segali, Sebuyau, Sarawak (between Sebangan and Batang Sadong Bridge). I’ll keep this blog updated for you readers who are interested in purchasing my organic produce. See ya!